- Foreign Military Sales (FMS) data taken from the US Defense Security Cooperation Agency’s (DSCA) “Foreign Military Sales, Foreign Military Construction Sales and Military Assistance Facts” reports. The latest publicly-available edition is that of 2017. For 2003-2009 data, I have used the 2009 report. For 2010-2017 data, I have used the 2017 report. Note that across individual yearly reports, certain data entries may have minor discrepancies; I have resolved this issue by using two reports (2009 and 2017) dividing the 15-year time period (2003-2017) into two non-overlapping bins.
- Direct Commercial Sales (DCS) data taken for the US State Department’s Section 655 Reports to the US Congress. I have used 16 individual year reports to collate the 2003-2018 data set. Note that DCS shipment data for 2009 is missing. I have “filled” this missing entry by replacing it with the median of the 2008-2018 data. The SIPRI database of Section 655 Reports do not have country data for 2011 which was obtained from the Federation of American Scientists.
- Indian military modernisation data is from successive Union Budget Revised Expenditure numbers. For definitions used, see an earlier methodology note.
- Foreign Military Sales Agreements, 2003 – 2017: tabulation of FMS Agreements between 2003 and 2017 with data from 2009 and 2017 reports (see no. 1 above).
- Comparison of Foreign Military Sales, 1950-1999 and 2000-2005: Historical data for 1950-1999 taken from the 2009 DSCA report. (In 2000 and 2001, there were no FMS agreements between India and the US on account of sanctions from the 1998 nuclear tests).
- Direct Commercial Sales Authorized, Including Agreements (million USD): do note that this includes agreements signed in individual years (reported separately in the Section 655 Reports as Defence Services Authorized till 2013).
- Comparison of Agreements & Authorizations with Military Modernisation Budgets, 2006-2014:
- ‘Commercial and Government Agreements & Authorizations Total’ is the sum of FMS and DCS for each year between 2006 and 2014.
- ‘Foreign Component of Indian Military Modernisation Budgets Total’ was estimated by recording the modernization budgets for each year, and taking a fraction of that using the import content of the modernisation budget. (See points 1 and 2 in page 5 of an earlier methodology note for data sources.) Conversion to USD using each year’s reference exchange (USD/INR) rate, with data from the RBI.
- ‘Indian Military Modernisation Budgets Total’ was estimated by summing over the modernisation budgets of each year. (For definition of modernisation budget, see point 1 in page 7 of this note.)
- Deliveries and Shipment, 2003-2017: data from State Department Section 655 and DSCA reports. For 2009, the missing DCS shipment data was inferred from other observations (see no. 2 in the previous section).